16 August 2012

Abstract and parameterized types

Scala supports both abstract and parameterized types, which are essentially revamped generics (in Java) or templates (in C++).

First off, methods can be parameterized, in order to abstract a generic type which can be used by it. The apply method in companion objects is the best place to start. Here's an example from the implementation of the List class in the Scala library.

object List {

  // ...

  def apply[A](xs: A*): List[A] = xs.toList

Classes and traits can be parameterized as well.

In most languages, types are designed to reduce casting, which can be an expensive operation. Type systems also imply support for variance, i.e. covariance and contravariance.

However, consider the use of a parameterized type in a trait. You must specify the parameterized type(s) in the deriving class, i.e. the deriving class has to be concrete.

import java.util.SimpleDateFormat

trait JsonComment[T] {
  def fromJson: T

class JsonComment(comment: String, user: String, time: String)
  extends FromJson[Comment] {

  lazy val dateFormat = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy/MM/dd HH:mm:ss")

  def fromJson = Comment(

JsonComment has to define the type Comment (Ok, I admit this is a really bad example), and it cannot omit the type. Also, it's not possible to have members which are objects of the specified type.

Enter abstract types. Abstract types are types whose identity is not precisely known. Deriving classes may specify the abstract type(s) in a base class. As parameterized types have variance annotations, abstract types have type bounds.

import java.util.{ DateFormat, SimpleDateFormat }

trait FromJson {
  type C
  type F <: DateFormat	// upper type bound specified

  val formatter: F

  def parseTime(date: String) = formatter.parse(date)

  def fromJson: C

abstract class AbstractJsonComment extends FromJson {
  type T = Comment

abstract class AbstractFormattedJsonComment extends AbstractJsonComment {
  type F = SimpleDateFormat

class JsonComment(comment: String, user: String, time: String)
  extends AbstractFormattedJsonComment {

  val formatter = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy/MM/dd HH:mm:ss")

  def fromJson = Comment(

Here, AbstractJsonComment omits specifying the type F which has to be a subclass of DateFormat. The class AbstractFormattedJsonComment specifies F, but has to be abstract as it doesn't implement the functions in FromJson. Thus, these two classes specify the abstract types separately, and JsonComment specifies the implementation. Note that FromJson has a member of type F, which it uses to provide a partial implementation.

Almost any implementation with parameterized types can be turned into one with abstract types, and vice versa. However, abstract types make it easier to separate implementation and specification.

Tags: Scala programming